This tutorial covers the use of TractoR to perform model-based tract segmentation as described in Ref. (1) below. Like the simpler (but now deprecated) heuristic approach, probabilistic neighbourhood tractography (PNT) is based on the idea of using a reference tract as a topological guide to the tract required. The model-based approach is considerably more robust but takes longer to run. If you use this method in your studies please cite Ref. (1).
TractoR experiment scripts that may be used in a typical PNT-based study generally start with the prefix “pnt-”, but there are other, more general purpose scripts which are often used, such as
apply. Details of the relevant scripts are given in each section below.
Reference tracts and matching models
In addition, PNT makes use of a matching model, which must be “trained” from the data. The model captures information about the typical deviations that acceptable tract segmentations make from the reference tract. The easiest way to get starting with PNT is to use a pretrained model, a set of which are provided with TractoR version 3.1.0 and later. A second option is to use the
pnt-em script, which uses a single data set and fits the model while simultaneously finding suitable tracts. This approach, which is described in Ref. (2) and was introduced in TractoR version 1.0.0, is the recommended one when the pretrained models are unsuitable or a study-specific model is required. It also requires less work from the user than the third alternative, which is to split your data set into a training set and a testing set, and use
pnt-eval, respectively, to first train the model and then use it for tract matching.
pnt-em are used to produce results, the results themselves take essentially the same form. All three routes are outlined below.
Using pretrained models
This is the simplest approach, and will be appropriate for many datasets. In particular, it can be used on individual cases. Here we will illustrate the principle by segmenting the forceps minor (corpus callosum genu) in a copy of TractoR’s test dataset.
We begin by cloning the session into a new directory, just to separate it from the main installation.
tractor clone $TRACTOR_HOME/tests/data/session .
Now, we need to select the reference tracts that the standard models have been trained against, and then generate candidate tracts in our test subject and evaluate them against the model.
tractor pnt-data session TractName:genu DatasetName:genu_data SearchWidth:7
tractor pnt-eval TractName:genu DatasetName:genu_data ResultsName:genu_results
This should take around a minute to run. At this point we have a text file, genu_data.txt, which contains information about the candidate tracts, and a binary file, genu_results.Rdata, which contains the results of evaluating the data against the model.
We can now visualise the best-matching tract, either with
tractor pnt-viz TractName:genu DatasetName:genu_data ResultsName:genu_results
tractor slice session@FA genu.1 Z:max Alpha:log
which creates a tract visitation map, and subsequently a PNG image, based on 1000 streamlines from the best-matching candidate tract, or
tractor pnt-prune TractName:genu DatasetName:genu_data ResultsName:genu_results
tractor slice session@FA genu.1 Z:max Alpha:log
which does the same, but after first pruning streamlines which deviate from the reference tract substantially more than the centroid of the tract, thereby producing a more even result (see Ref. (3) below for more details).
The process can then be repeated for any other tracts of interest.
Training and segmenting in one step
Using a so-called “unsupervised” approach, a study-specific matching model can be trained and applied iteratively using a group of datasets. The
pnt-em experiment script is available to perform this function. We begin by creating a design file, which collects together parameters common to several scripts and tells TractoR where to find our data and what the tract of interest is. For this tutorial we assume the data are in subdirectories of /data. (In this case you will need to provide your own data, since one session is not enough.) The design file, “design.yaml”, will therefore look something like this:
Session: [ /data/subject1, /data/subject2 ]
Note that we use only two subjects to keep the example short, but in practice more will be required to train the model correctly (see also the next section).
With the design file created, we can run PNT using the commands
plough -C design.yaml pnt-data %Session
tractor -c design.yaml pnt-em
The first of these will take longer than the second to run, since the tracts have to be generated and important characteristics extracted. Using default settings, run time on a standard PC is a few minutes per subject for
pnt-data, although the code is easily parallelisable if you have many subjects (see
man plough for information on how
plough facilitates this). The result of these commands will be a text file called “genu_data.txt”, plus model and results files with an .Rdata extension.
Results can be visualised and interpreted as described below.
To create a matching model manually, it is necessary to select a number of additional tracts which represent suitable segmentations of the tract of interest. These will be used to train the model. The training tracts can be generated using the same combination of the
track scripts as a custom reference tract, or by any other suitable method. Either way, the data used for training should be checked by hand, and kept separate from the data that will be used for testing later.
Once a number of training tracts have been identified and the corresponding test sessions and seed points are known, they can be put into a design file for use with the
pnt-train script. The design file (say “training.yaml”) will look something like the following:
Session: [ /data/trainingsubject1, /data/trainingsubject2 ]
Seed: [ "41,38,23", "39,41,22" ]
This design will involve seeding at voxel location (41,38,23) in the session rooted at /data/trainingsubject1, and at (39,41,22) in /data/trainingsubject2.
Note: We use only two training tracts to keep the example short, but in practice two is too few. The exact number of training tracts required is hard to estimate. Five may be sufficient in some cases, but more is better, and ten or more may well be needed to capture the variability most effectively.
Training the model is then a matter of running the commands
plough -C training.yaml pnt-data %Session %Seed
tractor -c training.yaml pnt-train
This will create a file called “training_model.Rdata”, which represents the trained model. This name is always based on the “DatasetName” specified in your design file.
With the reference tract and model in place, we can move on to segmenting the genu in novel brain data. Note that the reference and model are reusable between studies, as long as the reference continues to represent the tract required and the training tracts cover a suitable range of acceptable tract trajectories.
Segmenting in novel data
Using the model for segmentation of the tract of interest in another subject requires a pair of commands, following a similar pattern to the ones used for training. Our aim is now to generate a series of candidate tracts in the diffusion space of the test subject, calculate the shape characteristics of each tract, and evaluate a likelihood for each under the model. We first need to create another design file, design.yaml. Its contents will be something like the following:
Note that in this case no seed points are specified. (To do so is possible, but there is rarely any need to, since a centre point can be established automatically by registering the test brain to the reference brain and transforming the reference tract seed point accordingly.) The “SearchWidth” is the width of the search neighbourhood, in voxels, along each dimension. In this case we use a 7 x 7 x 7 voxel region.
Running the commands
tractor -c design.yaml pnt-data /data/testsubject
tractor -c design.yaml pnt-eval ModelName:training_model
will then create the test data set (in “testing.txt”), and the final results file (“genu_results.Rdata”). Note that the “ModelName” given must match the model file created by
pnt-train. Since we are testing on just one subject we use
tractor rather than
plough as the interface to
pnt-data in this case.
Visualising and interpreting results
The results can be visualised using the
pnt-viz script. For example, we can use
plough -C design.yaml pnt-viz
to create Analyze/NIfTI volumes representing the best matching tract in the test brain. An alternative, introduced in TractoR version 1.3.0, is the
pnt-prune script, which uses the tract shape model to remove false positive pathways from the final segmentations, thereby producing much cleaner output. The command in this case is
plough -C design.yaml pnt-prune
If you use this method, please cite Ref. (3) below. Further details on the theory and implementation of this method can be found in that paper.
Various pieces of information about the results, including the likelihood log-ratio, a measure of goodness-of-fit for each segmentation, can be calculated using the
plough -C design.yaml pnt-interpret Mode:ratio
The mean FA along the selected tract can then be calculated using the
mean script, as in
plough -C design.yaml mean %Session@FA genu.%%
This tutorial has demonstrated how to fit a probabilistic model for tract matching, and segment a similar tract in novel data using that model. We have followed the processes laid out in the references below.
- J.D. Clayden et al., IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 26(11):1555-1561, 2007.
- J.D. Clayden et al., Neuroimage 45(2):377-385, 2009.
- J.D. Clayden et al., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5762:150-157, 2009.